The sewage treatment plants designed and built by our firm are a single compact building object which includes absolutely all devices for manufacturing process, accommodation rooms, hydroponics lagoon and sediment mineralization system. The plants are completely insulated from environment what ensures stable work even in hard winters. Due to the unique design our biological reactor the plants do not emit noise, aerosols and smells.
They need small area, they may exist in immediate neighbourhood of habitations and do not require a protected zone.
The attractive architecture of our plants masks their industrial purpose. They can perform additional functions as eco-education centres, small sanctuaries or local tourist attraction. When the communal waste mineralization reactors are added they can generate electricity, warm water and purify water. The only waste material left is a sterile mineral, which may be used for manufacturing containers in recycle processing. Our engineering may be employed in already existing sewage treatment plants. We warrant then reducing of electric energy use, enlargement of transfer function and positive ecological effects.
Our technology and our sediment mineralization system can be adopted in every already existing plant.
The general principle of process, the characteristics of the biological reactor, lagoon, mineralization and aeration system.The mechanical part.
The mechanical stage is standard, but our firm preferences the most modern integrated modules, where in one hermitic casing are successfully eliminated rakings, sand and oils.
We prepare our own constructions, which are price competitive and theirs quality is comparable to the last things in the world.
The biological treatment.
The second step of the plant there is biological treatment. There is the circulation basin of activated sludge integrated with the final sedimentation. The biological reactor may work in vertical position ( system 'APIS-RONDO' e.g. Bargłów Ko¶cielny 1998), or in horizontal position ('APIS I' - Czerwieńsk-1995r.,'APIS II' e.g. Drzonów, Cybinka or Tuchorza, Wi¶niew, Zbuczy, Paczków - 1999r., Brzozów -2003r.). Below we present the principle of operation the circulation basin in a horizontal position.
The hybrid circulation biological reactor.
The circulation basin of activated sludge is a ring shaped tank placed on the external side of the final sedimentation. There is made aeration and compounding a sewage with a living clusters of microbes i.e. with the activated sludge. The sludge factorizes pollutions bio-chemically in interactions between carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. The left products are used as a nutrient medium. Activated sludge eliminates from sewage dissolved organics solids, no-sedimentary solids and colloidal participles. In final sedimentation are separated the following zones:
- an-oxiated - oxygen concentration 0,25 mg O2 /dm3
- oxygen - level of oxygen concentration 2,0mg O2 /dm3.
The zones are separated with openwork barriers built with flowing through submersible deposits, which can also to immobilize the sludge. There is immobilized about 50% of biomass. In the final sedimentation organized as above, all biological processes i.e. oxygen and oxygen-free proceed in the both kind of sludge - in immobilized sludge and in suspended sludge. This is the novelty in the final sedimentations basins. The solution protects system from sludge rinsing out during a hydraulic overload.
The extended surface of deposit on which is shaped immobilized biological membrane is about 120m2/m3. The aeration is realized by surfaces layers of sediment immediately contacted with oxygenated sludge. In deeper membrane layers, where increases volume of hypoxia, the aeration is growing stronger. The products left aeration are immediately consumed by aerobes due to oxygen-free zone, what prevents educing of disagreeable smell.
In aerobic zones there was designed air loading into the sludge by ASD (air stream bottom aerators). We provide two types of ASD - directional one and with reflux shell. The aerator works as a mammoth pump: it sucks in a liquid wastes with sludge in and then after oxygenated, it throws them to the surface or reflects them to the bottom. Due to this process we obtain the maximal positive effect in oxygen use. Air is pumped by blowing engines. The sounders take measurements of oxygen contains inside the zone. That information is transmitted to the control station which switches the blowing machines or limits them. The process is fully automatic. The variable hydraulic expenditure ASD is depended from quantity of feeding air what makes the system automatically self-steering.
For full safety in phosphorus removing and operating during break-down we provide our system with dosage station PIX. The installation PIX, we emphasize it, does not exist in this case for phosphorus precipitation, but as emergency and aided device only. PIX is dosed into the nitrification zone, not into a crude sewage. In the nitrification zone a strong oxygen conditions warrants reactions forming a trivalent iron what warrant bonding of phosphorus, not carbon.
The principle of automatically self steering basin with flowing through submerged mediums.
The submerged mediums are considered to be the best research of the modern technology in sewage system treatment. We are satisfied ourselves that several years ago already we had forecasted that and then we have conducted our investigations in this direction, what present result is our presented now, technology. The biological sewage treatment system is the representation of a natural circulation of elements in Nature. The more precise is our representation, the nearer to Nature we are.
What is and what does do the submerged flowing through medium? Please do not mislead it with used before nitrification filters nor sprinkled ones. The submerged medium, as above, is the three dimensional structure with maximal surface development and minimal resistance of waste water flow. If the part of such medium is placed transversely into a waste water flow with active sludge suspended in it, the medium automatically creates a nutritive chain with all biological levels. This is for biomass putting out of action, named the immobilization of the sludge. In sewage treatment technologies, the most advantageous are sediment cultures. They find a waste water flowing through them a supplier of food and oxygen. On the medium is settled such amount of biomass as precisely is enough to carry a food and oxygen. The settled biomass is the function with amount of waste water flowed into the plant and its compositions. On the medium will settle amount of biomass precisely corresponded to delivered oxygen and food. Settling of submerged medium is proceeded with principle of "voluntary". In this conception we have there "habitat". (Habitat - an environment in which clusters of species find the best conditions for theirs life, habitat is a part of biotope). That warrants the most clever action of being settled species. The task for designer there is do not upset an equilibrium of habitat and to limit maximally an external interference ( in here interference of service). The barrier built with parts of medium which will completely partition direction of the flow, will be also oxygen barrier. In practice ( the measurements of several plants) in front the barrier oxygen concentration there is 2,5-3,0 gO2/m3, behind the barrier on an average 0,3gO2/m3. It is achieved due to natural biochemical processes, which has been proceeded in the volume of medium. Behind the barrier we get, without steering) relatively anaerobic conditions which are suitable for de-nitrification ( the part de-nitrification - reduction of nitrates for NH4 and full de-nitrification for N2. Further, in the flow direction, the de-nitrification zone is closed by second barrier built with submerged medium. The oxygen consumption behind the barrier is relatively small because of breathing aerobes, however it is considerably decreased after second barrier, where oxygen concentration might to be practically zero. This way, we achieved once time again "free" phosphorus liberating zone. Near behind the closing barrier there are settled ASD (air stream bottom aerators, the first commercial name was DIFLOKS) with return jacket, which can aerate whole vertical section at once. From this place there is started nitrification zone ( aeration of NH4 for nitrites and then nitrate with assimilation CO2) . On the circuit of the biological reactor basin there are several or from ten to twenty barriers -zones, as above. The agreed upon portion of the waste water coming into the reactor, after flew through initial separated anaerobic zone, is running round the reactor at least several times. That portion of waste water is completely treated bio-chemically tens times before it gets through to the final sedimentation, from where a part of it together with the sludge once again come into the process. The re-circulating process is necessary for a part of suspended sludge "flowing off" to final sedimentation. In the system with submerged barriers the suspended sludge is about 50% of all active biomass taking part in the process ( the excessive sludge is removed into a further basin).
During start-up is required an adjustment the amount of re-circulated sludge only. This parameter has the small sensitivity for instantaneous changes of loading, because of sufficient homeostasis* in all biomass taking part in the process. * (homeostasis - ability of organisms and ecosystems for preserving an equilibrium even in no permitting circumstances). Why such a process is self-controlling and service interference is not only needless, but also inadvisable? It is because the circulation is drove by ASB. They work hydraulically as the mammoth pumps (see annexes). Theirs circulation delivery, as a pumps, is directly proportional to amount of being fed air. The amount of fed air is controlled by oxygen use, what is depended from the amount of supplied food ( the waste water) coming to the plant. The oxygen use is simultaneously the indicator of that process dynamics ( the superior is it, the more transformations take place). To warrant the specific dynamic of the process must be controlled the circulation output of aerators, which is increased or decreased automatically and in direct proportion to amount of feeding air. This way creates the closed circle of interactions with self steering manufacturing process.
The final sedimentation with radial flow has the funnel bottom which there is on inside of the ring-shaped basin of active sludge.
The final sedimentation separates mixture of waste water and sludge which were distributed from the circulation active sludge basin. The separated sludge re-circulates back into the basin, and overflow of sludge is carried away for further processing.
Thoroughly cleaning - hydroponic lagoon ( an artificial river).
The third stage of the plant there is thoroughly cleaning, what takes place in the labyrinth flowing through lagoon. The lagoon is divided in parallel trains. Every train is a cascade of several stages. Such a solution facilitates a possible removal of vegetation after operating and at the same time creates possibility turning off the all train or single section between stages. The lagoon simulates, in more intensive way, a self-purification taking place in rivers. The labyrinth flowing through was obtained by separating the lagoon with biological panels. The deposits are provided as habitat for air plants and as a ground for root dusters. The system is known and used as a different types of biological medium.
The conducting research od barriers made with BIOPAX modules had indicated, that in the lakes, for example Karczemne and Klasztorne, one module has been covered with the growth mass to 70 kg. This is very significant consumer of bio-genes, which can not be omitted in modern sewage treatment. It is not difficulty to calculate, that if on 1m3 of deposit we have 5,55 parts of one medium, the 1m3 medium is able to take in about 400 kg of biomass. It correspond to more or less 100m2 properly settled waste lagoon.
The sub-wasted water flow through so designed and so selected lagoon warrants the first purity class released water. Even when the receiver does not respond the first class, the released water dilutes them and improves its quality.
For satisfactory operation the whole year long the lagoon is insulated from weather conditions. It is covered by cellular polycarbonate which has a great structural strength and is very good thermal insulator. Under common covering the whole plant there is proceeded the specific microcirculation. A gaseous products of hetero-tropic zone are absorbed by auto-tropic organisms ( plants on the medium) and inversely, oxygen produced in the zone is used for enrichment an air has been dozen by aerators to hetero-tropic zone. It composes almost off-line atmosphere regeneration system and it has got the basic sense during determine of the sewage treatment plant influence zone for an environment.
The patented and employed by our firm aeration system has commercial name ASD - air stream bottom aerators. It is our original solution, which basic function is supplying the biggest amount of oxygen. Simultaneously it stirs profoundly a waste water in all its profiles ( a turbulence phenomenon ). The ASD machines are integral parts of self steering system in the circulation basin of the biological reactor. The aeration and stir functions allow to use the ASD in an engineering without mixers ( fine-vesicle classic system), which uses additional energy and creates danger of mixing a sludge floccules. Properly designed and made aeration system, authorized by authors of the patents ( Janusz Wa¶, Krzysztof Biernat), warrants, that even when an air expense is small, there will not appear an undesirable sedimentation of the sludge. The ASD aerator is fully made with resistant steel and its construction does not include any moving parts. The least efficiency declared by producer ( BIOPAX - WBWW) is for 3 kg O2/1 kWh. The additional advantage of ASD is eliminating the mixers and not limited air dosing depending to requirement ( the oxygen sounders control a blower continuously and a throttling of air does not occur ).
Methodic of calculations.
Because of hybrid building of reactor the authors worn against employing exactly done calculations under ATV standard.
For dimensioning the aeration machines the requirement of oxygen is calculated in coefficient OC/Ł = 2,7 to 2,8.
Methodic of calculations for cubature of the each zone and selection numbers of submersed medium was done empirically by authors of the project and now it is the property of firm BIOPAX - WBWW. The methodic is suitable for specific construction of the barrier and it is result of the barrier characteristics. The characteristics decides about general bio-dynamics of the process and therefore, every one firm, which has mastery of the own engineering in barriers construction, has the individual calculation, which is their exclusive intellectual property.
The sediment management.
Due to immobilization the biological film has considerably greater concentration than the one in suspended structure. Therefore, after had ruptured from the barrier and mixed in final sedimentation, it has given together more contents of dry mass in excessive sediment. In many cases, from final sedimentation one has received 96% hydration. It allow to have the great density in the basins of excessive sedimentation, where if necessary, the oxygen stabilization is done. This way received sediment is easy dehydrated, especially in the chamber presses e.g. in Bargłów Ko¶cielny ( WBWW engineering ). During the process of sediment dehydration received in manufacturing as above, one use lime and PIX only receiving 40% of dry mass. Lime deliver to the sediment on this stage of process eliminates already useless hygienic stage and sediments immediately are useful in Nature or agriculture.
The low-temperature, low- electricity use sediment mineralization.
After being dehydrated in presses and centrifuges, the sediment is fed into the container or immediately into the mineralizers in continuously dosage way. Mineralization is proceeded in the reactor in temperature max. 500°C and does not emit smells, gases nor combustions. It does not require a protection zone. Sterilized steam will be used for heating the object, waste water and purified water. A part of CO2 we will use for cleaning waste water. One part we will feed to the biological reactor, and another part to the hydroponic lagoon. Owing to fed CO2 to lagoon, there will happen the faster growth of a green mass, the roots will absorb more phosphorus and nitrogen. A treatment effect will increase.
Chemically-biological method of sediment mineralization.
That engineering is now preparing, it will be implement in 2004r.
Specific qualities of designed and built by us plants are:
Characteristics of aeration system ASD
- Low investment and exploitation costs
- Operating in an object completely isolated from environment ( constant temperature independent from season of the year)
- Top-level treatment the all year long
- Own, patented, entailing no damage, aeration system ASD
- Self steering process
- Top-level operational reliability
- Natural mechanic-biological process, with the third hydroponical treatment stage, which is a protective buffer against a break-down
- The great resistance against sudden change of load
- The resistance against even a several days long electricity lack
- Processing on a brought in sewage only
- Time of the all investment together with the design is not longer than one year
- An possibility to be a local ecological center because of living inside many species of water plants, water side plants, fishes, crayfishes, reptiles ( a small sanctuary)
- Removal of a foul and arduous sediment with a small amount of mineral left
- Producing water of I and II purity class, and even drinking water
- Possibility for agriculture of water plants, hydrophilous plants and dashing plants
- No need a protection zone
In older, traditional plants the aeration machines might to be change by ASD system, what due to economy of electricity use, will cause the cost of the investment will soon be refunded and in the same time, using the submerged biological flowing through barriers, one will allow to have more capacity of the plant with the same cubage.
- Small electricity use
- Mixers elimination from nitrification chambers
- Great efficiency and flexibility of aeration system, not less than 3 kg O2/kWh
- No throttling in air jets ( do not exist losses of pressure)
- Making use of turbulence effect for aeration and stirring
- Simple construction what warrant trouble-free operating
- Total resistance against corrosion
- Full shortage of submerged mobile parts
- Low investment costs
- Mammoth pump like work of aeration system
- Due to directed flowing through eliminating of sewage digestion zone
- Total trouble free air jets, no possibility of choking an air flowing through
- Many years warrant service
Advantages of mineralizer
- Work in the temperature for 500°C, what excellent decreases electricity use
- Installation does not posses a burning chamber
- Volume reduction 15 - 20 times
- Mass reduction 25 - 100 times
- Full oxidation of organic compounds to H2O and CO2
- Full safety of mineral residue in amount of initial charge
- Low investment costs
- Very low operating costs, the installation has got the heat recovery system in the catalytic reactor, where heat is turned back to the process
- No need a protective zone
THE PROPOSED ENGINEERING WARRANTS STABLE WORK IN ALL WEATHER CONDITIONS, DURING VARIABLE CHARGE IT PRODUCES WATER AND DOES NOT LEAVE ARDUOUS SEDIMENT.
IT IS POLISH ENGINEERING.